Author Archives: pilinu

Updating our grammatical typology

We now have the following categories in our grammatical taxonomy: determinants nouns pronouns verbs prepositions and postpositions determinant modifiers noun modifiers, i.e. adjectives adjective modifiers verb modifiers, i.e. adverbs (but in a restricted sense with regard to classical grammar) adverb … Continue reading

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On the category of adverb modifiers

Let’s continue to rethink the gruesome (so is it argued here) category of adverbs (in the classical sense). Let’s now turn our attention to the category of ‘adverb modifiers’. Adverbs are understood here in a restricted sense: they are either … Continue reading

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The case of adjective modifiers and the notion of grammatical proof

Let’s consider again the case of adjective modifiers (in classical grammar, this category of words are considered as degree adverbs). These include the following: peu, très, extrêmement, surtout, étonnamment, à peine, vraiment, assez, bien, trop, tellement, … = pocu, assai, estremamente, … Continue reading

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The status of adverbs

What are adverbs in the present grammatical taxonomy? Adverbs have a much more restrictive definition here than in their traditional definition. Adverbs in this typology are verb modifiers. Therefore, adverbs are distinct from: adjective modifiers (such as peu, très, extrêmement, … Continue reading

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The status of adjective modifiers

What is the status of adjective modifiers (tant, tout juste, un rien, un tantinet, très, extrêmement, … = so much, just a little, a little, a little, very, extremely, …) in the present grammatical typology? Adjectives are defined as noun … Continue reading

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Grammatical typology again

What are the characteristics of the resulting grammatical typology? We now have the following categories: determinants nouns pronouns verbs prepositions and postpositions determinant modifiers noun modifiers, i.e. adjectives adjective modifiers verb modifiers, i.e. adverbs but in a restricted sense

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The status of adjectives

What is the status of adjectives in the present grammatical typology? The notion of modifier is central to this taxonomy. Thus, the adjective is a noun modifier. In the expression ‘the blue sky’, ‘blue’ is a modifier of the noun … Continue reading

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The case of new words for machine translation

Another case that argues for the use of rule-based translation, i.e. human-like, is the following. Frequently we come across a new word, a word we have never seen before. More often than not, a human knows how to translate it. … Continue reading

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Characteristics of an AGI (artificial general intelligence)

What are the characteristics we want for an AGI (artificial general intelligence)? An AGI should have a very advanced capacity in NLP and language comprehension. One of the qualities we expect from an AGI is respect for multilingualism. Hopefully, the … Continue reading

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The two-language matching problem

Here is a problem for a human intelligence (or an AGI): we have a dictionary (with words, lemmas and grammatical types) in a language A and a second dictionary in a language B. If we have an extensive corpus of … Continue reading

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Prototype of text search with optional grammatical type

Let us expand the idea of text analysis derived from rule-based translation. Above is an example of a classic word-based search. In this particular case, it is the French word ‘été’. This word is ambiguous because it can be a … Continue reading

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Why it’s worth it to engage in rule-based translation

Rule-based translation is difficult to implement. The main difficulty encountered is taking into account the groups of words, so as to be on a par with statistics-based translation. The main problems in this regard are (i) polymorphic disambiguation; and (ii) … Continue reading

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A two-sided analysis of postpositions

#preposition #postposition Consider the following adverbs: après (after, dopu) (he would eat after), avant (before, nanzi) (they had seen them before). They can also be considered as prepositions: après la fête: after the feast, dopu à a festa avant le … Continue reading

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More on two-sided grammar

Let’s focus on analyzing the following phrases: à force de courage (bravely) à force de courage et de persévérance (by dint of courage and perseverance) avec beaucoup d’abnégation (selflessly) d’une manière ou d’une autre (in any way) d’une façon vraiment … Continue reading

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Lemmatizer for French language updated

I just updated the lemmatizer for French language. Many new options are available. The API can be tested here: https://rapidapi.com/okchakkotranslator/api/lemmatizer-for-french-language

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Reflections on grammatical typologies

It is useful to point out the differences that may exist between different grammatical typologies. The classical grammatical taxonomy is essentially aimed at teaching and comprehension. It therefore has a pedagogical purpose. On the other hand, the taxonomy that is … Continue reading

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Analyzing relative pronouns

What is the status of ‘relative pronouns’ of classical grammar within the present conceptual framework? Traditionally, a distinction is made between simple relative pronouns (qui, que, dont, où ; who, what, whose, where) and compound relative pronouns (à qui, pour … Continue reading

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Powering MT with two-sided grammar: the case of ‘près de’

‘près de’ (near) is considered to be a prepositive locution. From the viewpoint of two-sided grammar, it is (synthetically) a preposition, made up (analytically) of an adverb (‘près’) followed by the preposition ‘de’. In Corsican language, this is translated as … Continue reading

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Expanding on noun modulators

Let’s take a closer look at noun modulators, especially common noun modulators. We have seen that adjectives could be considered, in the present conceptual framework, as noun modulators. In this context, the question arises, are there other forms of noun … Continue reading

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Modulators: the case of adjectives

Using the notion of modulator again, we can now insert adjectives into this framework: in this context, they consist of noun modulators (mostly common nouns, but sometimes proper nouns as well). The adjective, as a noun modulator, is placed either … Continue reading

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New: Part-of-speech tagger for French language API

I have just published the POS-tagger for French language API, on RapidAPI. The use of the API is free for 1000 requests / month. No training necessary, it works immediately.

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Modulators of determinants

We have mentioned the special category of determinant modulators. It seems that this category is interesting and deserves to be explored further. A determinant modulator is placed before a determinant and changes its meaning. As we have already seen, from … Continue reading

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Grammatical categories by position again: the case of adverbs and modulators placed before a modulator

Let us try to delve more deeply into the case of adverbs. We shall continue now to define them by their position in relation to other grammatical categories. The result is that adverbs are divided into several different categories. Now … Continue reading

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Grammatical categories by position: the case of adverbs and modulators placed before a determinant

Let us try to delve more deeply into the case of adverbs, trying to define them by their position in relation to other grammatical categories. The adverbs are divided into several different categories. Now let’s look at the adverbs that … Continue reading

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Grammatical categories by position: the case of adverbs and verb modulators placed before the verb

Let us look again at the case of adverbs and try to define them by their position in relation to other grammatical categories. We are now splitting the adverbs into several different categories. Now let’s look at the adverbs that … Continue reading

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Grammatical categories by position: the case of adverbs and verb modulators

If we look again at the case of adverbs and try to define them by their position in relation to other grammatical categories, it follows that we need to split the adverbs into several different categories. To begin with, some … Continue reading

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Grammatical categories by position: the case of adverbs and adjective modulators

If we look at the case of adverbs and try to define them by their position in relation to other grammatical categories, it follows that we need to split the adverbs into several different categories. To begin with, some adverbs … Continue reading

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Defining grammatical types

It seems that a reflection on the nature of grammatical type is necessary. The categories of common noun, qualifying adjective, verb, personal pronoun, etc. are well known. But what is a grammatical type? What is the criterion for distinguishing them? … Continue reading

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New considerations on priority language pairs for machine translation: thinking to Gallurese language

The question is whether to implement the Italian-Gallurese pair or the French-Gallurese pair. As already emphasized, the Italian-Gallurese pair is a priority. But since some excellent translators such as Deepl are able to translate Italian-French very correctly, it follows that … Continue reading

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7/7: seventh open test

Today we are conducting the seventh (and last) open test. The result is 1 – (2/154) = 98.70%. There are two errors: one semantic disambiguation error (‘Defense’ = Difesa) and one tense error (‘tombe’ = caschi, present instead of subjonctive). … Continue reading

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